Reasoning with Mormons out of the scriptures (Acts 17:2) (Home)

Table of Contents: 
Introduction     3. Adam         6. The Priesthood     9. The Gospel   12. Eternal Life  
1. His Image    4. God            7. Apostasy            10. Baptism        Summary
2. Creation      5. Trinity          8. Prophets             11. Marriage       Scripture Reference


6. The Priesthood 

Ordain elders in every city (LDS Teachings | Bible | Catholic Teachings | Early Church Writings)

Reason with a Mormon by asking - Why does the LDS church teach that the Apostles could not ordain men to replace those who were dead when the Bible reveals the apostles ordained others before they died?

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 16  "One by one, the Apostles were killed. Because of the persecution, surviving Apostles could not meet to choose and ordain men to replace those who were dead. Eventually, local priesthood leaders were the only ones who had authority to direct the scattered branches of the Church.  ... There were no Apostles or other priesthood leaders with power from God, and there were no spiritual gifts." 

Tit.1 ([4] To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. [5] For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: [7] For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; [9] Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.)

Before the apostles died they ordained bishops who could ordain others like they were appointed (Tit.1:4-9).  While the apostles were alive bishops were local leaders (Phil.1:1).  The apostle successors are ordained bishops, they are made overseers by the holy Ghost to protect the flock (Acts.20:17,28), they are the stewards of God (Tit.1:7), they take care of the church of God (1Tim.3:5), they hold fast to the faithful word that the apostles taught (Tit.1:9), they must first be proved (1Tim.3:10), they have the gift that is given with the laying on of hands (1Tim 4:14).  Christ is the head of the church, the church is his body (Eph 5:23). Christ is head over all things to the church (Eph.1:22). There is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus (1Tim.2:5). The people of God are a royal priesthood (1Pet.2:2-10). 

When Christ ascended into heaven he gave authority to his servants (Mark 13:34). Christ built his church on the rock, Peter was given the given the keys of the kingdom of heaven and the power to bind and loose (Matt 16:18-19). We receive a kingdom which cannot be moved (Heb.12:28). A kingdom which shall never be destroyed, it shall stand for ever, it is given to the saints (Dan.2:44; Dan.7:13-14).  After the resurrection, the Lord established his house on Mount Sion, the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem (Heb.12:22). The church  is the "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1Tim 3:15).   

Must be a witness of his resurrection (LDS Teachings | Bible | Catholic Teachings | Early Church Writings)

Reason with a Mormon by asking - Why does the LDS church teach that twelve Apostles was to continue when the Bible reveals that the requirement of a twelve Apostle is to be witnesses of his resurrection?

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 16  "Jesus had set a pattern for twelve Apostles to govern the Church. It seemed clear that the organization was to continue as he had established it" 

Acts.1 ([21] Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, [22] Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection. [25] That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. [26] And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.)

The office of twelve apostle can not continue after Jesus died because no person can meet the office's requirements of being a witness Jesus’ life and resurrection (Acts.1:8-26).  The twelve apostles were witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem, they ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead (Acts.10:39-41). The twelve apostles of the Lamb (Rev 21:12,14) were chosen and ordained by Jesus, they were witness that were with Jesus from the beginning (John.15:16-27). They were eye witnesses (2Pet 1:15; Acts 2:32). The original twelve apostles are the foundation of the Church (Eph 2:20).  There are false apostles who are deceitful workers, who transform themselves into the apostles of Christ (2Cor 11:13; Rev 2:1-2).  

Jesus was called an apostle (Heb 3:1). In the church there are some have the vocation of apostle to edify the church (Eph 4:1-12). These apostles have a spiritual gift just like evangelists; pastors and teachers (1Cor 12:1-29). There are apostles like Barnabas and Paul (Acts 14:14). Barnabas was a prophet and a teacher (Acts.13:1). Barnabas was sent out (Acts 11:22). Paul and Barnabas were sent out to teach and preach the word of the Lord (Acts 15:22-35). The apostles like Paul and Barnabas were not among the twelve apostles at Jerusalem, when Paul and Barnabas were not able to settle a dispute they went apostles at Jerusalem who then called a council to settle the dispute (Acts 15:2-23). 


LDS Church Teachings

Ordain elders in every city  . 

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 17  "Authority from God Was Restored ... John the Baptist came in 1829 to ordain Joseph Smith ... Then Peter, James, and John . . .  came and gave Joseph and Oliver the Melchizedek Priesthood and the keys of the kingdom of God ... the priesthood was returned to the earth."

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 16  "One by one, the Apostles were killed. Because of the persecution, surviving Apostles could not meet to choose and ordain men to replace those who were dead. Eventually, local priesthood leaders were the only ones who had authority to direct the scattered branches of the Church." 

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 16  "One by one, the Apostles were killed. Because of the persecution, surviving Apostles could not meet to choose and ordain men to replace those who were dead. Eventually, local priesthood leaders were the only ones who had authority to direct the scattered branches of the Church. The perfect organization of the Church no longer existed, and confusion resulted. More and more error crept into Church doctrine, and soon the destruction of the Church was complete. The period of time when the true Church no longer existed on earth is called the Great Apostasy. ... The Roman emperor adopted this false Christianity as the state religion. This church was very different from the church Jesus organized. Members of this church believed that God was a being without form or substance. ... They did not know that we are his children. They did not understand the purpose of life. Many of the ordinances were changed because the priesthood and revelation were no longer on the earth. ... There were no Apostles or other priesthood leaders with power from God, and there were no spiritual gifts. The prophet Isaiah had foreseen this condition, prophesying, "The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant" (Isaiah 24:5). It was the Church of Jesus Christ no longer; it was a church of men. "

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 16  "Jesus had set a pattern for twelve Apostles to govern the Church. It seemed clear that the organization was to continue as he had established it" 

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 14  "Those who are ordained to the office of Apostle ... is given all the keys of the kingdom of God on earth, but only the senior Apostle, who is President of the Church, actively exercises all of the keys.

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 13   ". . .  receives the priesthood by the laying on of hands by those who are in authority. . ." 

LDS Ensign, Aug 1976 "Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp: Three Bishops between the Apostles and Apostasy ... The writings of three bishops—Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, and Polycarp of Smyrna ... Clement’s writings ... about a.d. 96 ... Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch ... early second century, perhaps a.d. 107 ... many close friends in the church, including the bishop, Polycarp ... Scholars accept seven fairly long letters of Ignatius ... three great bishops dedicated to morality, seasoned in love, and vigorously alert against factions ... John’s Revelation is also roughly contemporary with the letters of Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp ... " (Richard Lloyd Anderson, “Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp: Three Bishops between the Apostles and Apostasy”)

LDS Ensign, Aug 1988 " James apparently played an important role in Jerusalem, for Paul lists him as one of the leaders in the Jerusalem Council: “James, Cephas, and John … seemed to be pillars.” (Gal. 2:9.) ... Because of James’s leading position, later Christian writers titled him Bishop of Jerusalem ... Irenaeus, a bishop writing in the last quarter of the second century. When young, Irenaeus knew Polycarp, an Asia Minor bishop in the vicinity of Ephesus, in present southwest Turkey. Polycarp had known John and reported events and attitudes in the Apostle’s life. Irenaeus’s recollection is clear: ... " (Richard Lloyd Anderson, “The First Presidency of the Early Church: Their Lives and Epistles”)

Must be a witness of his resurrection .

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 20  "We Must Be Baptized before We Can Receive the Gift of the Holy Ghost ... Baptism by immersion by a person having the proper authority is the only acceptable way of being baptized." 

Gospel Principles Chapter 17  "Authority from God Was Restored ... John the Baptist came in 1829 to ordain Joseph Smith ... Then Peter, James, and John . . .  came and gave Joseph and Oliver the Melchizedek Priesthood and the keys of the kingdom of God ... the priesthood was returned to the earth."

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 14  "The priesthood is divided into two parts:  . . .  the Aaronic Priesthood have authority to administer the outward ordinances of repentance and baptism. . .  the Melchizedek Priesthood have the power and authority to lead the Church . . ."

LDS Bible Dictionary John the Baptist "Son of Zacharias and Elisabeth, being of priestly descent through both parents. This lineage was essential, since John was the embodiment of the law of Moses, designed to prepare the way for the Messiah and make ready a people to receive him. He was the outstanding bearer of the Aaronic Priesthood in all history, and was entrusted with its most noble mission"

LDS Ensign (Nov 2006, 51–52) "With this priesthood power and, when necessary, the authorization of those with appropriate keys, we can perform the ordinances of salvation in His name: baptize for the remission of sins ... Before we received the priesthood, we had already been prepared and proven. We had exercised faith in Jesus Christ, repented, been baptized, and received the gift of the Holy Ghost."

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 14  "The priesthood is divided into two parts:  . . .  the Aaronic Priesthood have authority to administer the outward ordinances of repentance and baptism. . .  the Melchizedek Priesthood have the power and authority to lead the Church . . ."  

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 14   "The priesthood is divided into two parts: the Melchizedek Priesthood and the Aaronic Priesthood ... The lesser priesthood ... is called the Aaronic Priesthood because it was conferred on Aaron ... The offices in the Aaronic Priesthood are deacon, teacher, priest, and bishop. ... A bishop is ordained and set apart to preside over the Aaronic Priesthood in a ward." 

LDS Gospel Principles Chapter 14  "Men young and old are baptized into the Church, and when they are judged worthy they are ordained to the priesthood. ... The priesthood is divided into two parts: the Melchizedek Priesthood and the Aaronic Priesthood ... who hold the Aaronic Priesthood have authority to administer the outward ordinances of repentance and baptism. ... Those who hold the Aaronic Priesthood have authority to administer the outward ordinances of repentance and baptism. ... A worthy boy may be ordained a priest when he is sixteen years old or older. ... When ordained to the priesthood, a man or boy automatically becomes a member of a priesthood quorum.


Bible verses from King James

Ordain elders in every city  .

Mark.13 "[34] For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch."

Tit.1 ([4] To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. [5] For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: [7] For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; [9] Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.)

1Tim.3 ([15] But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.)

Acts.20 ([17] And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church.[28] Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.)

2Thes.2 ([3] Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;  [15] Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle.)

1Tim.4 ([1] Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;)

1Tim.3 ([1] This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. [2] A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach; [5] (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?) [9] Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. [10] And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless. )

2Tim.1 ([6] Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.)

1Tim.4 ([14] Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.)

Eph.2 ([20] And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; [21] In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:)

Matt.16 ([18] And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. [19] And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.)

Mark.13 ([34] For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.)

Acts.1 ([8] But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth [16] Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. [17] For he was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. [20] For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his bishoprick let another take. [21] Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, [22] Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection. [23] And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. [24] And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, [25] That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. [26] And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.)

Acts.10 ([39] And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree: [40] Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly; [41] Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. [42] And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. [43] To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.)

Rev.21 ([12] And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: [14] And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.)

Acts.10 ([39] And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree: [40] Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly;[41] Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. [42] And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. )

John.15 ([16] Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. [27] And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.)

2Pet.1 ([16] For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty.)

Acts 2 ([32] This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. )  

Acts.14 ([14] Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,) 

Heb.3 ([1] Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ

2Cor.11 ([13] For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. ) 

Rev.2 ([1] Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks; [2] I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:.)

Eph.4 ([1] I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called, [11] And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; [12] For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: )

1Cor.12 ([1] Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant. [10] To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: [28] And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. [29] Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles?)

Matt.16 ([18] And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. [19] And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.)

Acts.15 ([2] When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question. [4] And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. [6] And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter. [7] And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. [15] And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, [23] And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia: [25] It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, [26] Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. [27] We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth. [28] For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; [30] So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch: and when they had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle: [32] And Judas and Silas, being prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them.) 

Heb.12 ([28] Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear)

Dan.2 ([44] And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.)

Dan.7 ([13] I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. [14] And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. [27] And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.)

Must be a witness of his resurrection .

Acts.14 ([14] Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,)

Acts.15 ([2] When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question.)

Eph.2 ([20] And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;)

Acts.11 ([22] Then tidings of these things came unto the ears of the church which was in Jerusalem: and they sent forth Barnabas, that he should go as far as Antioch. [23] Who, when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad, and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. [24] For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith: and much people was added unto the Lord.)

Acts.13 ([1] Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. [2] As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. [3] And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away. [4] So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus. [5] And when they were at Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews: and they had also John to their minister. [43] Now when the congregation was broken up, many of the Jews and religious proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas: who, speaking to them, persuaded them to continue in the grace of God. )

Acts.15 ([2] When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question. [22] Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren: [25] It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, [35] Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also.)

John.4 ([1] When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, [2] (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,))

Acts.11 ([16] Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.)

Luke.3 ([16] John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire:)

Footnotes in the NAB on Luke 3 "[16] He will baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire: in contrast to John's baptism with water, Jesus is said to baptize with the holy Spirit and with fire. "

John.1 ([26] John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not; [33] And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.)

Acts.19 ([2] He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. [3] And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism. [4] Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. [5] When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.  [6] And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.)

Footnotes in the NAB for Acts 19 "[1-6] Upon his arrival in Ephesus, Paul discovers other people at the same religious stage as Apollos, though they seem to have considered themselves followers of Christ, not of the Baptist. On the relation between baptism and the reception of the Spirit, see the note on Acts 8:16."

Matt.28 ([19] Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:)

Matt.10 ([1] And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.)

Luke.1 ([5] There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.)

Eph 5 ( [23] For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. [26] That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,)

Acts.1 ([5] For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence. [8] But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.)

Mark.13 "[34] For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch."

Footnotes in NAB for Acts 8 "[16] Here and in Acts 10:44-48 and Acts 19:1-6, Luke distinguishes between baptism in the name of the Lord Jesus and the reception of the Spirit. In each case, the Spirit is conferred through members of the Twelve (Peter and John) or their representative (Paul). This may be Luke's way of describing the role of the church in the bestowal of the Spirit. Elsewhere in Acts, baptism and the Spirit are more closely related (Acts 1:5; 11:16)."

Acts.8 ([16] (For as yet he was fallen upon none of them: only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) [17] Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. [18] And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, [19] Saying, Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost. [20] But Peter said unto him, Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money.)

Acts.11 ([16] Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. [17] Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God?)

Acts.10 ([1] There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band, [2] A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway. [3] He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cornelius. [31] And said, Cornelius, thy prayer is heard, and thine alms are had in remembrance in the sight of God. [38] How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him. [43] To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.  [44] While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. [45] And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. [46] For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, [47] Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we? [48] And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.)

John.3 ([3] Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. [5] Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. [6] That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.)

Acts.11 ([1] And the apostles and brethren that were in Judaea heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God. [2] And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the circumcision contended with him, [14] Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved. [15] And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning. [16] Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. [17] Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God? [18] When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life.)

Heb.6 ([2] Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.)

Mark.16 ([16] He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.)

1Pet 2 Footnotes in the NAB [9-10] The prerogatives of ancient Israel mentioned here are now more fully and fittingly applied to the Christian people: "a chosen race" (cf Isaiah 43:20-21) indicates their divine election (Eph 1:4-6); "a royal priesthood" (cf Exodus 19:6) to serve and worship God in Christ, thus continuing the priestly functions of his life, passion, and resurrection; "a holy nation" (Exodus 19:6) reserved for God, a people he claims for his own (cf Malachi 3:17) in virtue of their baptism into his death and resurrection. This transcends all natural and national divisions and unites the people into one community to glorify the one who led them from the darkness of paganism to the light of faith in Christ. From being "no people" deprived of all mercy, they have become the very people of God, the chosen recipients of his mercy (cf Hosea 1:9; 2:23).

Gen.14 ([18] And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. )

Pss.110 ([1] The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. [4] The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.) 

Psalm 110 Footnotes in NAB [4] Like Melchizedek: Melchizedek was the ancient king of Salem (Jerusalem) who blessed Abraham (Genesis 14:18-20); like other kings of the time he performed priestly functions. Hebrews 7 sees in Melchizedek a type of Christ.

Heb.5 ([1] For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins: [4] And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. [5] So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. [6] As he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. [8] Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered; [9] And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him; [10] Called of God an high priest after the order of Melchisedec.)

Heb.6 ([20] Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.)

Heb.7 ([1] For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him; [3] Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually  [11] If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? [12] For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law. [13] For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar. [14] For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood. [15] And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, [16] Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life. [17] For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. [18] For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. [19] For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God. [20] And inasmuch as not without an oath he was made priest: [21] (For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:) [22] By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament. [23] And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death: [24] But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. [25] Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. [26] For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; [27] Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself. [28] For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmity; but the word of the oath, which was since the law, maketh the Son, who is consecrated for evermore.)

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [1] The author here assumes that Melchizedek was a priest of the God of Israel (cf Genesis 14:22 and the note there).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [1-3] Recalling the meeting between Melchizedek and Abraham described in Genesis 14:17-20, the author enhances the significance of this priest by providing the popular etymological meaning of his name and that of the city over which he ruled (Hebrews 7:2). Since Genesis gives no information on the parentage or the death of Melchizedek, he is seen here as a type of Christ, representing a priesthood that is unique and eternal (Hebrews 7:3).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [4-10] The tithe that Abraham gave to Melchizedek (Hebrews 7:4), a practice later followed by the levitical priesthood (Hebrews 7:5), was a gift (Hebrews 7:6) acknowledging a certain superiority in Melchizedek, the foreign priest (Hebrews 7:7). This is further indicated by the fact that the institution of the levitical priesthood was sustained by hereditary succession in the tribe of Levi, whereas the absence of any mention of Melchizedek's death in Genesis implies that his personal priesthood is permanent (Hebrews 7:8). The levitical priesthood itself, through Abraham, its ancestor, paid tithes to Melchizedek, thus acknowledging the superiority of his priesthood over its own (Hebrews 7:9-10).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [11-14] The levitical priesthood was not typified by the priesthood of Melchizedek, for Psalm 110:4 speaks of a priesthood of a new order, the order of Melchizedek, to arise in messianic times (Hebrews 7:11). Since the levitical priesthood served the Mosaic law, a new priesthood (Hebrews 7:12) would not come into being without a change in the law itself. Thus Jesus was not associated with the Old Testament priesthood, for he was a descendant of the tribe of Judah, which had never exercised the priesthood (Hebrews 7:13-14).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [13] He of whom these things are said: Jesus, the priest "according to the order of Melchizedek." According to the author's interpretation, Psalm 110 spoke prophetically of Jesus.

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [15-19] Jesus does not exercise a priesthood through family lineage but through his immortal existence (15-16), fulfilling Psalm 110:4 (Hebrews 7:17; cf Hebrews 7:3). Thus he abolishes forever both the levitical priesthood and the law it serves, because neither could effectively sanctify people (Hebrews 7:18) by leading them into direct communication with God (Hebrews 7:19).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [16] A life that cannot be destroyed: the life to which Jesus has attained by virtue of his resurrection; it is his exaltation rather than his divine nature that makes him priest. The Old Testament speaks of the Aaronic priesthood as eternal (see Exodus 40:15); our author does not explicitly consider this possible objection to his argument but implicitly refutes it in Hebrews 7:23-24.

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [20-25] As was the case with the promise to Abraham (Hebrews 6:13), though not with the levitical priesthood, the eternal priesthood of the order of Melchizedek was confirmed by God's oath (Hebrews 7:20-21); cf Psalm 110:4. Thus Jesus becomes the guarantee of a permanent covenant (Hebrews 7:22) that does not require a succession of priests as did the levitical priesthood (Hebrews 7:23) because his high priesthood is eternal and unchangeable (Hebrews 7:24). Consequently, Jesus is able to save all who draw near to God through him since he is their ever-living intercessor (Hebrews 7:25).

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [22] An [even] better covenant: better than the Mosaic covenant because it will be eternal, like the priesthood of Jesus upon which it is based. Hebrews 7:12 argued that a change of priesthood involves a change of law; since "law" and "covenant" are used correlatively, a new covenant is likewise instituted.

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [26] This verse with its list of attributes is reminiscent of Hebrews 7:3 and is perhaps a hymnic counterpart to it, contrasting the exalted Jesus with Melchizedek.

Heb 7 Footnotes in NAB [26-28] Jesus is precisely the high priest whom the human race requires, holy and sinless, installed far above humanity (Hebrews 26); one having no need to offer sacrifice daily for sins but making a single offering of himself (Hebrews 27) once for all. The law could only appoint high priests with human limitations, but the fulfillment of God's oath regarding the priesthood of Melchizedek (Psalm 110:4) makes the Son of God the perfect priest forever (Hebrews 28).

Catholic Answers " Moreover, Jesus, the Son of God, is the great high priest who has passed through the heavens (4:14); his priesthood is of the order of Melchizedek, superior to the priesthood of Aaron, from which the Levitical priesthood derived."

1Tim.2 ([5] For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;)

Eph.1 ([22] And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,)

1Pet.2 ([2] As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby: [3] If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious. [4] To whom coming, as unto a living stone, is allowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious, [5] Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.[6] Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.  [9] But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: [10] Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.)

1Pet 2 Footnotes in the NAB [9-10] The prerogatives of ancient Israel mentioned here are now more fully and fittingly applied to the Christian people: "a chosen race" (cf Isaiah 43:20-21) indicates their divine election (Eph 1:4-6); "a royal priesthood" (cf Exodus 19:6) to serve and worship God in Christ, thus continuing the priestly functions of his life, passion, and resurrection; "a holy nation" (Exodus 19:6) reserved for God, a people he claims for his own (cf Malachi 3:17) in virtue of their baptism into his death and resurrection. This transcends all natural and national divisions and unites the people into one community to glorify the one who led them from the darkness of paganism to the light of faith in Christ. From being "no people" deprived of all mercy, they have become the very people of God, the chosen recipients of his mercy (cf Hosea 1:9; 2:23).

Exod.19 ([6] And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.)

Exod 19 Footnotes in the NAB [6] Kingdom of priests: inasmuch as the whole Israelite nation was consecrated to God in a special way, it formed a race of royal priests who participated in the liturgical sacrifices, even though the actual offering of the sacrifices was the exclusive prerogative of the Aaronic priesthood. The same condition exists in the New Dispensation as regards the whole Christian people and the Christian priesthood in the strict sense. Cf Isaiah 61:6; 1 Peter 2:5, 9.

Rev.1 ([6] And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.)

Heb.13 ([15] By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name. [16] But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.)


Catholic Church Teachings

Ordain elders in every city   .

In order that the mission entrusted to them might be continued after their death, the apostles consigned, by will and testament, as it were, to their immediate collaborators the duty of completing and consolidating the work they had begun, urging them to tend to the whole flock, in which the Holy Spirit had appointed them to shepherd the Church of God. They accordingly designated such men and then made the ruling that likewise on their death other proven men should take over their ministry. The Lord Jesus endowed his community with a structure that will remain until the Kingdom is fully achieved. The choice of the Twelve with Peter as their head. Representing the twelve tribes of Israel, they are the foundation stones of the new Jerusalem. Christ prepares and builds his Church. The Church is called the building of God. The Lord compared himself to the stone which the builders rejected, but which was made into the cornerstone. On this foundation the Church is built by the apostles and from it the Church receives solidity and unity.

The Lord Jesus chose men to form the college of the twelve apostles, and the apostles did the same when they chose collaborators to succeed them in their ministry. Raised to the Father's right hand, he has not forsaken his flock but he keeps it under his constant protection through the apostles, and guides it still through these same pastors who continue his work today. To fulfill their exalted mission, the apostles were endowed by Christ with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit coming upon them, and by the imposition of hands they passed on to their auxiliaries the gift of the Spirit, which is transmitted down to our day through episcopal consecration. It is Christ whose gift it is that some be apostles, others pastors. He continues to act through the bishops. Jesus is the Father's Apostle. He called and appointed twelve, whom also he named apostles, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach. From then on, they would also be his apostles. In them, Christ continues his own mission: "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you." The apostles' ministry is the continuation of his mission; Jesus said to the Twelve: "he who receives you receives me."

Christ instituted the Twelve, he constituted them in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them. Just as by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another. The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head. The college of bishops exercises power over the universal Church in a solemn manner in an ecumenical council. This college, in so far as it is composed of many members, is the expression of the variety and universality of the People of God; and of the unity of the flock of Christ, in so far as it is assembled under one head.

Just as the office which the Lord confided to Peter alone, as first of the apostles, destined to be transmitted to his successors, is a permanent one, so also endures the office, which the apostles received, of shepherding the Church, a charge destined to be exercised without interruption by the sacred order of bishops. The bishops have by divine institution taken the place of the apostles as pastors of the Church. The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church. The Lord made St. Peter the visible foundation of his Church. He entrusted the keys of the Church to him. The bishop of the Church of Rome, successor to St. Peter, is head of the college of bishops, the Vicar of Christ and Pastor of the universal Church on earth.

Apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders. The unbroken succession going back to the beginning according to the witness of tradition, are regarded as transmitters of the apostolic line. Holy Orders is the sacrament of the apostolic ministry, it is for the bishops as the successors of the apostles to hand on the "gift of the Spirit," the "apostolic line." Validly ordained bishops, i.e., those who are in the line of apostolic succession, validly confer the three degrees of the sacrament of Holy Orders. St. Paul said to his disciple Timothy: "I remind you to rekindle the gift of God that is within you through the laying on of my hands" (2 Tim 1:6), and "If any one aspires to the office of bishop, he desires a noble task." (1 Tim 3:1) To Titus he said: "This is why I left you in Crete, that you amend what was defective, and appoint presbyters in every town, as I directed you" (Titus 1:5). The priesthood of Aaron and the service of the Levites, as in the institution of the seventy elders, a prefiguring of the ordained ministry of the New Covenant. 

The Church is apostolic. She is built on a lasting foundation: "the twelve apostles of the Lamb". She is indestructible. She is upheld infallibly in the truth. Christ governs her through Peter and the other apostles, who are present in their successors, the Pope and the college of bishops. The Church is apostolic because she is founded on the apostles, in three ways: - she was and remains built on "the foundation of the Apostles," the witnesses chosen and sent on mission by Christ himself; - with the help of the Spirit dwelling in her, the Church keeps and hands on the teaching, the good deposit, the salutary words she has heard from the apostles; - she continues to be taught, sanctified, and guided by the apostles until Christ's return, through their successors in pastoral office: the college of bishops, assisted by priests, in union with the successor of Peter, the Church's supreme pastor. Christ is the eternal Shepherd who never leaves his flock untended. Through the apostles he watches over us and protect us always. Christ made them shepherds of the flock to share in the work of the Son.

In the office of the apostles there is one aspect that cannot be transmitted: to be the chosen witnesses of the Lord's Resurrection and so the foundation stones of the Church. From the beginning of his public life Jesus chose certain men, twelve in number, to be with him and to participate in his mission. He gives the Twelve a share in his authority and 'sent them out to preach the kingdom of God and to heal. To be a witness to Christ is to be a "witness to his Resurrection," to "[have eaten and drunk] with him after he rose from the dead." As witnesses of the Risen One, they remain the foundation stones of his Church. Peter and the Twelve are the primary "witnesses to his Resurrection", but they are not the only ones - Paul speaks clearly of more than five hundred persons to whom Jesus appeared on a single occasion and also of James and of all the apostles. Only in a wholly exceptional and unique way would Jesus show himself to Paul "as to one untimely born", in a last apparition that established him as an apostle. 

The Bishops, established by the Holy Spirit, succeed the apostles. They are the visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular Churches. Episcopal consecration confers, together with the office of sanctifying, also the offices of teaching and ruling. . . . In fact . . . by the imposition of hands and through the words of the consecration, the grace of the Holy Spirit is given, and a sacred character is impressed in such wise that bishops, in an eminent and visible manner, take the place of Christ himself, teacher, shepherd, and priest, and act as his representative. By virtue of the Holy Spirit who has been given to them, bishops have been constituted true and authentic teachers of the faith and have been made pontiffs and pastors. The fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders is conferred by episcopal consecration, it is called the high priesthood.  Holy Orders configures the recipient to Christ by a special grace of the Holy Spirit, so that he may serve as Christ's instrument for his Church. By ordination one is enabled to act as a representative of Christ, Head of the Church, in his triple office of priest, prophet, and king. The ordained priesthood guarantees that it really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the Church. They receive the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person. 

As Christ's vicar, each bishop has the pastoral care of the particular Church entrusted to him. Each bishop is the lawful pastor only of the portion of the flock entrusted to his care, as a legitimate successor of the apostles he is, by divine institution and precept, responsible with the other bishops for the apostolic mission of the Church. The bishop receives the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders, which integrates him into the episcopal college and makes him the visible head of the particular Church entrusted to him. As successors of the apostles and members of the college, the bishops share in the apostolic responsibility and mission of the whole Church under the authority of the Pope, successor of St. Peter. The bishop, receove a grace of strength ("the governing spirit"), the grace to guide and defend his Church with strength and prudence as a father and pastor. The Father choses his servant for the office of bishop. May he be a shepherd to your holy flock, and a high priest blameless in your sight. Through the Spirit who gives the grace of high priesthood grant him the power to forgive sins as you have commanded to assign ministries as you have decreed and to loose from every bond by the authority which you gave to your apostles. 

In the ecclesial service of the ordained minister, it is Christ himself who is present to his Church as Head of his Body, Shepherd of his flock, high priest of the redemptive sacrifice, Teacher of Truth. The priest, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, acts in persona Christi Capitis. The minister is truly made like to the high priest and possesses the authority to act in the power and place of the person of Christ himself (virtute ac persona ipsius Christi). Christ is the source of all priesthood: the priest of the old law was a figure of Christ, and the priest of the new law acts in the person of Christ. The risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors. The power which they exercise personally in the name of Christ, is proper, ordinary, and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately controlled by the supreme authority of the Church. 

Christ entrusted to his apostles the ministry of reconciliation, bishops who are their successors, and priests, the bishops' collaborators, continue to exercise this ministry. Indeed bishops and priests, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, have the power to forgive all sins "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." In imparting to his apostles his own power to forgive sins the Lord also gives them the authority to reconcile sinners with the Church. This ecclesial dimension of their task is expressed most notably in Christ's solemn words to Simon Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of the apostles united to its head. The words bind and loose mean: whomever you exclude from your communion, will be excluded from communion with God; whomever you receive anew into your communion. Only God forgives sins. Since he is the Son of God, Jesus says of himself, "The Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins" and exercises this divine power: "Your sins are forgiven." Further, by virtue of his divine authority he gives this power to men to exercise in his name. "On the evening of that day, the first day of the week," Jesus showed himself to his apostles. "He breathed on them, and said to them: 'Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained". Only priests who have received the faculty of absolving from the authority of the Church can forgive sins in the name of Christ.

Simon Peter holds the first place in the college of the Twelve; Jesus entrusted a unique mission to him. Through a revelation from the Father, Peter had confessed: "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Our Lord then declared to him: "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it." Christ, the "living Stone", thus assures his Church, built on Peter, of victory over the powers of death. Because of the faith he confessed Peter will remain the unshakable rock of the Church. His mission will be to keep this faith from every lapse and to strengthen his brothers in it. Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." The "power of the keys" designates authority to govern the house of God, which is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection: "Feed my sheep." The power to "bind and loose" connotes the authority to absolve sins, to pronounce doctrinal judgements, and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles and in particular through the ministry of Peter, the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom. The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head. This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope. Peter, whom he had made the foundation of his future Church. On the rock of this faith confessed by St. Peter, Christ built his Church. 

Clement "apostles ... appointed ... if they should die, other approved men should succeed to their ministry" 
Clement "If anyone disobey the things which have been said by him [God] through us" 
Irenaeus "Peter and Paul ...  handed over the office of the episcopate to Linus" 
Ignatius "to the church also which holds the presidency ... Romans"
Ignatius "the bishop but one who beyond all others possesses all power and authority" 

Clement was the bishop of Rome who was ordained by the apostle Peter
Ignatius was the bishop of Antioch who appointed by the apostle Peter
Polycarp was the bishop of Smyrna who was a disciple of the apostle John
Irenaeus was the bishop of Lugdunum who was a disciple of Polycarp, Polycarp was a disciple of the apostle John

The Athnasian Creed  “... At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account for their own works.”

LDS: "Because of apostasy, there was no direct revelation from God." (GP Chap 17)
ECF: "the things which have been said by him [God] through us" (Clement)
ECF: “bishop … combined both apostle and prophet in his own person (Polycarp)  

LDS: "a prophet will never be allowed to lead the Church astray" (GP Chap 9)
ECF: "heretics ... are blind to the truth, and deviate from the [right] way" (Irenaeus)

ECF: "... a false prophet, ruining the minds of the servants of God. It is the doubters, not the faithful, that he ruins... Some true words he does occasionally utter; for the devil fills him with his own spirit, in the hope that he may be able to overcome some of the righteous. ... know which of them is the prophet, and which the false prophet ... the false prophet ... exalts himself, and wishes to have the first seat ...  " (Hermas)

The Martyrdom of Polycarp "Polycarp was . . . bishop of the Catholic Church at Smyrna, and a teacher in our own day who combined both apostle and prophet in his own person. For indeed, every word that ever fell from his lips either has had or will have its fulfillment" (Martyrdom of Polycarp 5, 16 [A.D. 155]).

Clement "Owing to the sudden and repeated calamities and misfortunes which have befallen us, we must acknowledge that we have been somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the matters in dispute among you, beloved; and especially that abominable and unholy sedition, alien and foreign to the elect of God, which a few rash and self-willed persons have inflamed to such madness that your venerable and illustrious name, worthy to be loved by all men, has been greatly defamed. . . . Accept our counsel and you will have nothing to regret. . . . If anyone disobey the things which have been said by him [God] through us [i.e., that you must reinstate your leaders], let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and in no small danger. . . . You will afford us joy and gladness if being obedient to the things which we have written through the Holy Spirit, you will root out the wicked passion of jealousy" (Letter to the Corinthians 1, 58–59, 63 [A.D. 80]).

From Catholic Answers - The chain of apostolic succession, of course, started with the apostles themselves. But apostles stopped being commissioned in the first century, and so apostolic succession continues with the bishops, the successors of the apostles. ... Christ conferred upon his apostles the original task of shepherding the earthly Church in his absence. As the Church grew, the apostles themselves appointed different kinds of ministers to assist them. Among the apostles there were two groups. The first consisted of the Twelve, who witnessed the whole of Christ's earthly ministry from his baptism to his Ascension (Acts 1:21-26). ... As the apostles died, the task of shepherding the Church fell by default upon the highest-ranking ministers appointed by them. This group is known today as the bishops, who are the successors of the apostles as the highest shepherds of the earthly Church. ... Apostolic succession thus involves in the bishops serving as successors to the apostles, not serving as apostles. The bishops are not simply a continuation of the office of apostle; they received the governance of the Church when that office ceased. Though modern bishops succeed the apostles as the highest shepherds of the Church, and though they belong to unbroken lines of ordination going back to the hands of the apostles themselves, the office of bishop is not identical to the office of apostle. ...  bishop was a distinct office by the late first century, the end of the apostolic age. This is evident because at the beginning of the second century, Ignatius of Antioch wrote a series of letters (A.D. 107) to local churches as he journeyed to Rome for his execution. In these letters, he repeatedly attests that each local church he passes has the three-fold hierarchy of a bishop, several priests, and several deacons."

From Catholic Answers - "Ignatius had been bishop in Antioch for nearly forty years ... It is obvious that the apostles appointed others besides themselves to offices in the Church. ... these appointees were dedicated by means of a religious rite-the laying on of hands-either by those who already had authority conferred on them by Christ (the apostles) or by those on whom they had conferred authority in turn by the laying on of hands. These rites were what today we call sacramental ordinations... In the letters of Ignatius it is clear that leadership in the Christian community is exercised by an order of "bishops, presbyters, and deacons" ...  Ignatius was appointed to head the local church at Antioch while some of the original apostles were still alive ... About 80, the fourth pope, Clement of Rome wrote to the Corinthians that the apostles of Jesus had "preached in country and city, and appointed their first converts, after testing them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of future believers ... They later added a codicil to the effect that, should these die, other approved men should succeed to their ministry" (42:4, 2). On the basis of such early testimony, there can be no doubt that the early Church understood herself as "apostolic," as descending directly and organically, in an unbroken line, from the original apostles chosen and commissioned by Jesus Christ while on earth....Irenaeus, although he was a second-century bishop, had a direct personal link with the generation of the apostles. ...  Irenaeus understood the Church to be holy, catholic, and apostolic from one single passage in Against Heresies. He wrote that "the Church, although scattered over the whole civilized world to the end of the earth ['catholic'], received from the apostles and their disciples its faith ['apostolic']." ...  Irenaeus was especially insistent that this holy Church was also one. He wrote: "Having received this preaching and this faith, as I have said, the Church, although scattered in the whole world, carefully preserves it, as if living in one house. She believes these things everywhere alike, as if she had but one heart and one soul, and preaches them harmoniously, teaches them, and hands them down, as if she had but one mouth. ... For Irenaeus, the Church was necessarily one, as she was catholic, because she was apostolic: She was based on "that tradition which has come down from the apostles and is guarded by the successions of elders" (III:2:2). "The tradition of the apostles," Irenaeus added, "made clear in all the world, can be clearly seen in every Church by those who wish to behold the truth. We can enumerate those who were established by the apostles as bishops in the Churches and their successors down to our time" (III:2:3). As we have noted, Irenaeus had a personal link with the generation of the apostles through his mentor Polycarp. If, toward the end of the second century, he believed that an unbroken succession of bishops was the guarantee of the authenticity of the Church, imagine what he might have thought about an unbroken succession of bishops that has lasted through the twenty centuries!"

From Catholic Answers - "Christian pastors who were left in charge of the churches founded by the apostles wrote letters which have been preserved to this day. ... These documents serve as a direct source of what early Christianity was like. ... Their letters describe church structure, authority, and forms of worship. ... we will focus on two of the earliest writers, both of whom lived in apostolic times. Each of these men knew at least one the apostles personally, and each was a pastor of one of the churches founded by the apostles. ... The first, Clement, was ordained by Peter. ... His letter as the pastor of the Church of Rome (he would call himself a bishop), written to the Corinthians, has been historically authenticated as a first-century document, and his ordination by Peter was a fact accepted by other early Christians ... In the letter that comes down to us from Clement, he is writing around the year 96 as the bishop of the Church of Rome to restore peace in the Corinthian community. ... Clement writes with firm authority ... a man who learned his faith from the apostles themselves, who was ordained by Peter, that the early Church recognized as a rule of tradition the existence bishops, deacons, and laymen and that the authority of the Church descends from God through Christ by way of the apostles to the bishops. ... Clement sees no conflict between Scripture and Tradition, but rather appeals to both as sources of truth. He puts into practice Paul's admonition, "So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us, either by word of mouth or by letter" (2 Thess. 2:15). ... This is the earliest written description of the Church in the West.  ... The next earliest letters come, perhaps providentially, from the East, written by Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch, in Syria sometime around the year 110. Here too is a man whose life overlapped the lives of the apostles, who is believed to have personally known the apostle John. He is the bishop of a church founded by the apostles, a church where Barnabas, Peter, and Paul preached. ... His primary aim is to keep intact the teachings of historical Christianity as handed down by the apostles, who themselves had received them from Christ. ...  Like Clement, he sees that truth resides in the apostolic succession, from Christ to the apostles and from the apostles to the bishops, and he writes of this to each community, not as something new, but as a reminder that this is the mark of the Church in harmony with God.  .... All this is written by a man who lived in the days of the apostles and who knew John.  ... Among these facts of Christianity, Ignatius includes the fact that the body of Christ is really in the Eucharist. He says that heretics withhold themselves from the Eucharist because "they do not confess that the Eucharist is the flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ." ... So the Church as described by Ignatius in letters to seven Christian communities is the same hierarchical, sacramental Church as described by Clement. There is one noteworthy difference between the letters of Ignatius and that of Clement, and that is that Clement, as the bishop of the Rome, clearly feels he has the authority to intervene in the affairs of a sister church.

From Catholic Answers - "The Mormon "great apostasy" doctrine is a myth:  If Mormons want their claim of a complete apostasy to be taken seriously, they must display clearly biblical and historical evidence supporting it.  There never has been--nor will there ever be--a complete apostasy. Jesus Christ promised that his Church, established on the solid rock of Peter, will remain forever. We have his Word on it.  Mormons misconstrue the biblical passages which do refer to a "great apostasy" from the Christian Church. They read into the text a complete apostasy. Scripture mentions an apostasy in Matthew 24:4-12; Mark 13:21-23; Luke 21:7-8; Acts 20:29-30; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12; 2 Timothy 3:1-7, 4:1-4; 2 Peter 2:1-3; and Jude 17-19. Most of these verses say "many" will fall away, and not one mentions a complete apostasy of the Church."

From mormon2catholic -  "It comes down to authority. Either there was a Great Apostasy, or there wasn’t. Either Christ’s authority came down through Peter through all the popes, as the Catholics believe, or it was lost and restored through the Mormon church, like the Mormons believe. So the Catholic church claims that the authority never left, and that most of the Catholic teachings, including most importantly the Sacraments, are the exact same as they were when handed down from Christ to the apostles. Because the authority never left the earth, the teachings are the same. The authority is there."

From Catholic Answers - "Peter's authority is continued in the Church through the succession of the popes. ... Our Lord actually compared his Church to a building erected on the foundation of Peter's authority. ... Christ's own guarantee of permanence to his Church implies that the authority he conferred on Peter will remain with it as the most essential feature, the foundation, the source of unity, strength, and endurance. ... There is an early record that before Peter and Paul were martyred in Rome they together chose Linus as Peter's successor. He ruled the Church for about eleven years from 67. For the next twelve years Cletus was pope and then Clement from 90 to 100. ... the headship of the Church belongs to the bishop of Rome ...  ... The papacy is not handed on by one bishop of Rome to another through the laying on of hands ... A man is pope because the Church recognizes him as bishop of Rome, the successor of Peter."

From Catholic Answers - ... the New Testament teaches the concept of apostolic succession ... Apostolic succession means that the authority of the apostles was passed on to the early bishops of the Church. ... One witness to the structure of the early Church is St. Ignatius of Antioch, whose seven authentic letters are dated no later than A.D. 117 or 118, so he must have known some of the apostles themselves, as Antioch was a center of missionary activity frequented by Paul in Acts 11:26–30 and 13:1–3. Ignatius says, "It is fitting in every way . . . that you be knit together in a unified submission, subject to the bishop and presbytery that you may be completely sanctified" (Letter to Ephesians 2:2). Again he says of the Church, "Jesus Christ . . . is the will of the Father, just as the bishops, who are appointed in every land, are the will of Jesus Christ. So it is proper for you to be in harmony with the will of the bishop" (ibid., 3:2–4:1). He also wrote, "It is clear that one should see the bishop as the Lord himself" (ibid., 6:1). These quotes show first that Ignatius considered the bishops of the Church to be the "will of God" (i.e., their office was appointed by God) and second that obedience to the bishop was considered obedience to God himself. In some sense, the bishop represented God in the same way that the apostles did.  ... St. Irenaeus of Lyons (second century): "We can enumerate those who were appointed by the apostles as bishops in the churches as their successors even to our time" (Against Heresies 3.1). And in the next section, Irenaeus begins to list the successors of Peter at Rome with these words: "But since it would be too long, in a work like this, to list the successions in all the churches, we shall take only one of them, the church that is greatest, most ancient, and known to all, founded and set up by the two most glorious apostles Peter and Paul at Rome while showing that the tradition and the faith it proclaims to men comes down through the successions of the bishops even to us" (ibid., 3.2).

From Catholic Answers - "FOR the first centuries of its existence, Christianity was an outlawed religion, persecuted by the state. ... during the three hundred years which followed the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Christ, the Catholic Church managed to spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond ... Jesus commanded the apostles to "make disciples of all nations" (Matt. 28:19). To carry out that command, the Church had to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by Constantine and his successors ... "

From Catholic Answers - "The Roman Emperor Constantine convoked the first general (or "ecumenical") council of the Catholic Church, that of Nicaea. He invited the Catholic bishops of the world to assemble in one of his summer palaces in Asia Minor to decide the questions raised by the Alexandrian priest Arius and his followers, who were preaching about Jesus that "there was a time when he was not." The Emperor himself delivered an address in Latin to the convocation, urging the restoration of peace in the Church, upset in many places by the preaching of this novel Arian doctrine. Otherwise Constantine took no part in the deliberations of the Council; it was entirely an affair of the Church’s bishops. ... But the sentiments of the whole body of bishops at the Council of Nicaea seem never to have been in any real doubt. That Jesus Christ the Savior somehow could not have been fully and truly God was manifestly not the faith that had been handed down in the Church; the faith of the apostles was that Jesus Christ was indeed God. The Council fathers accordingly were obliged to formulate a creed that expressed the true faith of the Church about this.  The creed in question was not something the bishops made up for the occasion. A creed, or profession of faith, had been present in the Church from the beginning. It had to be professed by each convert to Christianity when accepting baptism; it had to be professed for the children of Christian families brought into the Church through infant baptism. In fashioning the original version of what came to be known as the Nicene Creed, the Council took one of the baptismal creeds in common use—probably the one used by the Church of Jerusalem—and added language that would express without ambiguity the true faith of the Church regarding Christ’s nature, as against what Arius and his followers were trying to say it was. ... Just as the apostles at the primitive Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) did not doubt their authority to decide for the Church with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, so the bishops at Nicaea took for granted that they too possessed authority to decide for the whole Church.  ... the Nicene Creed. Catholics know it by heart, even if they know little or nothing of its history. It represents a classic example of what in modern times has been called the "development of doctrine" in the Church. "

The Athanasian Creed  “... At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account for their own works.”

ECF: "apostles ... appointed ... if they should die, other approved men should succeed to their ministry" (Clement)
ECF: "If anyone disobey the things which have been said by him [God] through us" (Clement)
ECF: "Peter and Paul ...  handed over the office of the episcopate to Linus" (Irenaeus)
ECF: "to the church also which holds the presidency ... Romans (Ignatius)
ECF: "the bishop but one who beyond all others possesses all power and authority" (Ignatius)

861 "In order that the mission entrusted to them might be continued after their death, [the apostles] consigned, by will and testament, as it were, to their immediate collaborators the duty of completing and consolidating the work they had begun, urging them to tend to the whole flock, in which the Holy Spirit had appointed them to shepherd the Church of God. They accordingly designated such men and then made the ruling that likewise on their death other proven men should take over their ministry."

1577 "Only a baptized man (vir) validly receives sacred ordination." The Lord Jesus chose men (viri) to form the college of the twelve apostles, and the apostles did the same when they chose collaborators to succeed them in their ministry. The college of bishops, with whom the priests are united in the priesthood, makes the college of the twelve an ever-present and ever-active reality until Christ's return. The Church recognizes herself to be bound by this choice made by the Lord himself. For this reason the ordination of women is not possible.

1575 Christ himself chose the apostles and gave them a share in his mission and authority. Raised to the Father's right hand, he has not forsaken his flock but he keeps it under his constant protection through the apostles, and guides it still through these same pastors who continue his work today. Thus, it is Christ whose gift it is that some be apostles, others pastors. He continues to act through the bishops.

938 The Bishops, established by the Holy Spirit, succeed the apostles. They are "the visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular Churches" (LG 23).

815 The unity of the pilgrim Church is also assured by visible bonds of communion: - profession of one faith received from the Apostles; -common celebration of divine worship, especially of the sacraments; - apostolic succession through the sacrament of Holy Orders, maintaining the fraternal concord of God's family

1555 "Amongst those various offices which have been exercised in the Church from the earliest times the chief place, according to the witness of tradition, is held by the function of those who, through their appointment to the dignity and responsibility of bishop, and in virtue consequently of the unbroken succession going back to the beginning, are regarded as transmitters of the apostolic line.

1576 Since the sacrament of Holy Orders is the sacrament of the apostolic ministry, it is for the bishops as the successors of the apostles to hand on the "gift of the Spirit," the "apostolic line." Validly ordained bishops, i.e., those who are in the line of apostolic succession, validly confer the three degrees of the sacrament of Holy Orders.

1590 St. Paul said to his disciple Timothy: "I remind you to rekindle the gift of God that is within you through the laying on of my hands" (2 Tim 1:6), and "If any one aspires to the office of bishop, he desires a noble task." (1 Tim 3:1) To Titus he said: "This is why I left you in Crete, that you amend what was defective, and appoint presbyters in every town, as I directed you" (Titus 1:5).

1541 The liturgy of the Church, however, sees in the priesthood of Aaron and the service of the Levites, as in the institution of the seventy elders, a prefiguring of the ordained ministry of the New Covenant. Thus in the Latin Rite the Church prays in the consecratory preface of the ordination of bishops:  God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, . . .by your gracious word you have established the plan of your Church. From the beginning, you chose the descendants of Abraham to be your holy nation. You established rulers and priests and did not leave your sanctuary without ministers to serve you. . . .

1556 To fulfill their exalted mission, "the apostles were endowed by Christ with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit coming upon them, and by the imposition of hands they passed on to their auxiliaries the gift of the Spirit, which is transmitted down to our day through episcopal consecration."

1558 "Episcopal consecration confers, together with the office of sanctifying, also the offices of teaching and ruling. . . . In fact . . . by the imposition of hands and through the words of the consecration, the grace of the Holy Spirit is given, and a sacred character is impressed in such wise that bishops, in an eminent and visible manner, take the place of Christ himself, teacher, shepherd, and priest, and act as his representative (in Eius persona agant)." "By virtue, therefore, of the Holy Spirit who has been given to them, bishops have been constituted true and authentic teachers of the faith and have been made pontiffs and pastors."

1557 The Second Vatican Council "teaches . . . that the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders is conferred by episcopal consecration, that fullness namely which, both in the liturgical tradition of the Church and the language of the Fathers of the Church, is called the high priesthood, the acme (summa) of the sacred ministry."

1548 In the ecclesial service of the ordained minister, it is Christ himself who is present to his Church as Head of his Body, Shepherd of his flock, high priest of the redemptive sacrifice, Teacher of Truth. This is what the Church means by saying that the priest, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, acts in persona Christi Capitis: It is the same priest, Christ Jesus, whose sacred person his minister truly represents. Now the minister, by reason of the sacerdotal consecration which he has received, is truly made like to the high priest and possesses the authority to act in the power and place of the person of Christ himself (virtute ac persona ipsius Christi). Christ is the source of all priesthood: the priest of the old law was a figure of Christ, and the priest of the new law acts in the person of Christ.

1581 This sacrament configures the recipient to Christ by a special grace of the Holy Spirit, so that he may serve as Christ's instrument for his Church. By ordination one is enabled to act as a representative of Christ, Head of the Church, in his triple office of priest, prophet, and king.

1120 The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of the baptismal priesthood. The ordained priesthood guarantees that it really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the Church. The saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate Son was committed to the apostles and through them to their successors: they receive the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person. The ordained minister is the sacramental bond that ties the liturgical action to what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words and actions of Christ, the source and foundation of the sacraments.

1312 The risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying: [Jn 20:21-23] they became sacramental signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors

895 "The power which they exercise personally in the name of Christ, is proper, ordinary, and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately controlled by the supreme authority of the Church." But the bishops should not be thought of as vicars of the Pope. His ordinary and immediate authority over the whole Church does not annul, but on the contrary confirms and defends that of the bishops. Their authority must be exercised in communion with the whole Church under the guidance of the Pope.

880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them." Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another."

883 "The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head." As such, this college has "supreme and full authority over the universal Church; but this power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff."

884 "The college of bishops exercises power over the universal Church in a solemn manner in an ecumenical council." But "there never is an ecumenical council which is not confirmed or at least recognized as such by Peter's successor."

885 "This college, in so far as it is composed of many members, is the expression of the variety and universality of the People of God; and of the unity of the flock of Christ, in so far as it is assembled under one head."

862 "Just as the office which the Lord confided to Peter alone, as first of the apostles, destined to be transmitted to his successors, is a permanent one, so also endures the office, which the apostles received, of shepherding the Church, a charge destined to be exercised without interruption by the sacred order of bishops." Hence the Church teaches that "the bishops have by divine institution taken the place of the apostles as pastors of the Church, in such wise that whoever listens to them is listening to Christ and whoever despises them despises Christ and him who sent Christ."

882 The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, "is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful." "For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered."

936 The Lord made St. Peter the visible foundation of his Church. He entrusted the keys of the Church to him. The bishop of the Church of Rome, successor to St. Peter, is "head of the college of bishops, the Vicar of Christ and Pastor of the universal Church on earth" (CIC, can. 331).

1560 As Christ's vicar, each bishop has the pastoral care of the particular Church entrusted to him, but at the same time he bears collegially with all his brothers in the episcopacy the solicitude for all the Churches: "Though each bishop is the lawful pastor only of the portion of the flock entrusted to his care, as a legitimate successor of the apostles he is, by divine institution and precept, responsible with the other bishops for the apostolic mission of the Church."

1594 The bishop receives the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders, which integrates him into the episcopal college and makes him the visible head of the particular Church entrusted to him. As successors of the apostles and members of the college, the bishops share in the apostolic responsibility and mission of the whole Church under the authority of the Pope, successor of St. Peter.

1586For the bishop, this is first of all a grace of strength ("the governing spirit": Prayer of Episcopal Consecration in the Latin rite): the grace to guide and defend his Church with strength and prudence as a father and pastor, with gratuitous love for all and a preferential love for the poor, the sick, and the needy. This grace impels him to proclaim the Gospel to all, to be the model for his flock, to go before it on the way of sanctification by identifying himself in the Eucharist with Christ the priest and victim, not fearing to give his life for his sheep: Father, you know all hearts. You have chosen your servant for the office of bishop. May he be a shepherd to your holy flock, and a high priest blameless in your sight, ministering to you night and day; may he always gain the blessing of your favor and offer the gifts of your holy Church. Through the Spirit who gives the grace of high priesthood grant him the power to forgive sins as you have commanded to assign ministries as you have decreed and to loose from every bond by the authority which you gave to your apostles. May he be pleasing to you by his gentleness and purity of heart, presenting a fragrant offering to you, through Jesus Christ, your Son. 

869 The Church is apostolic. She is built on a lasting foundation: "the twelve apostles of the Lamb" (Rev 21:14). She is indestructible (cf. Mt 16:18). She is upheld infallibly in the truth: Christ governs her through Peter and the other apostles, who are present in their successors, the Pope and the college of bishops.

857 The Church is apostolic because she is founded on the apostles, in three ways: - she was and remains built on "the foundation of the Apostles," the witnesses chosen and sent on mission by Christ himself; - with the help of the Spirit dwelling in her, the Church keeps and hands on the teaching, the "good deposit," the salutary words she has heard from the apostles; - she continues to be taught, sanctified, and guided by the apostles until Christ's return, through their successors in pastoral office: the college of bishops, "assisted by priests, in union with the successor of Peter, the Church's supreme pastor": You are the eternal Shepherd who never leaves his flock untended. Through the apostles you watch over us and protect us always. You made them shepherds of the flock to share in the work of your Son. . . .

858 Jesus is the Father's Emissary. From the beginning of his ministry, he "called to him those whom he desired; . . . . And he appointed twelve, whom also he named apostles, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach." From then on, they would also be his "emissaries" (Greek apostoloi). In them, Christ continues his own mission: "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you." The apostles' ministry is the continuation of his mission; Jesus said to the Twelve: "he who receives you receives me."

765 The Lord Jesus endowed his community with a structure that will remain until the Kingdom is fully achieved. Before all else there is the choice of the Twelve with Peter as their head. Representing the twelve tribes of Israel, they are the foundation stones of the new Jerusalem. The Twelve and the other disciples share in Christ's mission and his power, but also in his lot. By all his actions, Christ prepares and builds his Church.

756 The Church is called the building of God. The Lord compared himself to the stone which the builders rejected, but which was made into the cornerstone. On this foundation the Church is built by the apostles and from it the Church receives solidity and unity . 

860 In the office of the apostles there is one aspect that cannot be transmitted: to be the chosen witnesses of the Lord's Resurrection and so the foundation stones of the Church. But their office also has a permanent aspect. Christ promised to remain with them always. The divine mission entrusted by Jesus to them "will continue to the end of time, since the Gospel they handed on is the lasting source of all life for the Church. Therefore, . . . the apostles took care to appoint successors."

551 From the beginning of his public life Jesus chose certain men, twelve in number, to be with him and to participate in his mission. He gives the Twelve a share in his authority and 'sent them out to preach the kingdom of God and to heal." They remain associated for ever with Christ's kingdom, for through them he directs the Church: As my Father appointed a kingdom for me, so do I appoint for you that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

995 To be a witness to Christ is to be a "witness to his Resurrection," to "[have eaten and drunk] with him after he rose from the dead." Encounters with the risen Christ characterize the Christian hope of resurrection. We shall rise like Christ, with him, and through him.

642 Everything that happened during those Paschal days involves each of the apostles - and Peter in particular - in the building of the new era begun on Easter morning. As witnesses of the Risen One, they remain the foundation stones of his Church. The faith of the first community of believers is based on the witness of concrete men known to the Christians and for the most part still living among them. Peter and the Twelve are the primary "witnesses to his Resurrection", but they are not the only ones - Paul speaks clearly of more than five hundred persons to whom Jesus appeared on a single occasion and also of James and of all the apostles.

659 "So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God." Christ's body was glorified at the moment of his Resurrection, as proved by the new and supernatural properties it subsequently and permanently enjoys. But during the forty days when he eats and drinks familiarly with his disciples and teaches them about the kingdom, his glory remains veiled under the appearance of ordinary humanity. Jesus' final apparition ends with the irreversible entry of his humanity into divine glory, symbolized by the cloud and by heaven, where he is seated from that time forward at God's right hand. Only in a wholly exceptional and unique way would Jesus show himself to Paul "as to one untimely born", in a last apparition that established him as an apostle.

1461 Since Christ entrusted to his apostles the ministry of reconciliation, bishops who are their successors, and priests, the bishops' collaborators, continue to exercise this ministry. Indeed bishops and priests, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, have the power to forgive all sins "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

1444 In imparting to his apostles his own power to forgive sins the Lord also gives them the authority to reconcile sinners with the Church. This ecclesial dimension of their task is expressed most notably in Christ's solemn words to Simon Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of the apostles united to its head."

1445 The words bind and loose mean: whomever you exclude from your communion, will be excluded from communion with God; whomever you receive anew into your communion, God will welcome back into his. Reconciliation with the Church is inseparable from reconciliation with God.

1441 Only God forgives sins. Since he is the Son of God, Jesus says of himself, "The Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins" and exercises this divine power: "Your sins are forgiven." Further, by virtue of his divine authority he gives this power to men to exercise in his name.

1485 "On the evening of that day, the first day of the week," Jesus showed himself to his apostles. "He breathed on them, and said to them: 'Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained"' (Jn 20:19, 22-23).

1495 Only priests who have received the faculty of absolving from the authority of the Church can forgive sins in the name of Christ.

552 Simon Peter holds the first place in the college of the Twelve; Jesus entrusted a unique mission to him. Through a revelation from the Father, Peter had confessed: "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Our Lord then declared to him: "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it." Christ, the "living Stone", thus assures his Church, built on Peter, of victory over the powers of death. Because of the faith he confessed Peter will remain the unshakable rock of the Church. His mission will be to keep this faith from every lapse and to strengthen his brothers in it.

553 Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." The "power of the keys" designates authority to govern the house of God, which is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection: "Feed my sheep." The power to "bind and loose" connotes the authority to absolve sins, to pronounce doctrinal judgements, and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles and in particular through the ministry of Peter, the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom.

881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head." This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.

586 Far from having been hostile to the Temple, where he gave the essential part of his teaching, Jesus was willing to pay the Temple-tax, associating with him Peter, whom he had just made the foundation of his future Church. He even identified himself with the Temple by presenting himself as God's definitive dwelling-place among men. Therefore his being put to bodily death presaged the destruction of the Temple, which would manifest the dawning of a new age in the history of salvation: "The hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father."

424 Moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit and drawn by the Father, we believe in Jesus and confess: 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. On the rock of this faith confessed by St. Peter, Christ built his Church.

The Athanasian Creed  “... At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account for their own works.”

Catholic Answers " The Bible tells us that when Jesus returns to earth, he will physically raise all those who have died, giving them back the bodies they lost at death. ... "‘We believe in the true resurrection of this flesh that we now possess’ (Council of Lyons II). We sow a corruptible body in the tomb, but he raises up an incorruptible body, a ‘spiritual body’ (cf. 1 Cor 15:42–44)" (CCC 1017). ... this has been the historic teaching of the Christian faith on the matter since the very beginning ... The Athanasian Creed ... at his coming all men have to rise again with their bodies and will render an account of their own deeds ... "

Catholic Answers "In the meantime, God has set up the thrones of the saints in heaven (cf. 4:4)—especially those who had withstood the persecutions of the early Church and been beheaded under the pagan emperors. They spiritually came to life and reigned with Christ in heaven for the duration of the millennium (20:4). The dead as a whole, however, were not resurrected until after the millennium (v. 5a). The spiritual resurrection experienced by the saints in heaven is known as "the first resurrection" (v. 5b), and it signifies that one will not be cast into hell to experience "the second death" (v. 6). After the millennium, the devil, released from his bondage, is again able to deceive the nations/gentiles and gather them against God's people (vv. 7–8). But they are destroyed by Christ at the Second Coming and cast into hell (vv. 9–10)."

His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom and will stand forever even though some in the church shall fall away (Heb 12; Dan 2; Dan 7). 

Must be a witness of his resurrection .

There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus (1Tim 2:5). Christ is the head over all things to the church (Eph 1:22). Kingdom of priests, the whole Israelite nation was consecrated to God in a special way, it formed a race of royal priests who participated in the liturgical sacrifices, even though the actual offering of the sacrifices was the exclusive prerogative of the Aaronic priesthood. The same condition exists in the New Dispensation as regards the whole Christian people and the Christian priesthood in the strict sense (Exod 9:6; Isaiah 61:6; 1 Peter 2:5, 9). The prerogatives of ancient Israel are applied to the Christian people: "a chosen race" (Isaiah 43:20-21) indicates their divine election (Eph 1:4-6); "a royal priesthood" (Exodus 19:6) to serve and worship God in Christ, thus continuing the priestly functions of his life, passion, and resurrection; "a holy nation" (Exodus 19:6) reserved for God, a people he claims for his own Malachi 3:17) in virtue of their baptism into his death and resurrection. He has made us kings and priests unto God and his Father (Rev 1:6).   

Everything that the priesthood of the Old Covenant prefigured finds its fulfillment in Christ Jesus, the "one mediator between God and men." The Christian tradition considers Melchizedek, "priest of God Most High," as a prefiguration of the priesthood of Christ, the unique "high priest after the order of Melchizedek. Christ, high priest and unique mediator, has made of the Church "a kingdom, priests for his God and Father." The whole community of believers is, as such, priestly. The faithful exercise their baptismal priesthood through their participation, each according to his own vocation. The baptized have become "living stones" to be "built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood." By Baptism they share in the priesthood of Christ, in his prophetic and royal mission. They are "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that [they] may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called [them] out of darkness into his marvelous light." Baptism gives a share in the common priesthood of all believers.

The whole Church is a priestly people. Through Baptism all the faithful share in the priesthood of Christ. This participation is called the "common priesthood of the faithful." On entering the People of God through faith and Baptism, one receives a share in this people's unique, priestly vocation: "Christ the Lord, high priest taken from among men, has made this new people 'a kingdom of priests to God, his Father.' The baptized, by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood." 

The celebrating assembly is the community of the baptized who, "by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that through all the works of Christian men they may offer spiritual sacrifices." This "common priesthood" is that of Christ the sole priest, in which all his members participate. The Christian people, "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people," have a right and an obligation by reason of their Baptism. The laity, dedicated as they are to Christ and anointed by the Holy Spirit, are marvelously called and prepared so that even richer fruits of the Spirit maybe produced in them. For all their works, prayers, and apostolic undertakings, family and married life, daily work, relaxation of mind and body, if they are accomplished in the Spirit - indeed even the hardships of life if patiently born - all these become spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

The Didache (Didache 7:1 [ca. A.D. 70]) After the foregoing instructions, baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living [running] water. If you have no living water, then baptize in other water, and if you are not able in cold, then in warm. If you have neither, pour water three times on the head, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Before baptism, let the one baptizing and the one to be baptized fast, as also any others who are able. Command the one who is to be baptized to fast beforehand for one or two days

Catholic Answers "... John the Baptist performed a "baptism of repentance" for Jews as a dramatic prophetic gesture indicating that they were as much in need of conversion as pagans. ... Given this history, it was natural for Jesus and his followers to use the same word for Christian baptism, though it was not identical either to the Jewish baptism or to that of John. ... One important aspect of Christian baptism in the New Testament is the clear relationship between being baptized with water and being "baptized with the Holy Spirit", or "born again. ... the New Testament clearly associates water baptism with Spirit baptism and rebirth (even if they do not interpret this relationship as cause and effect). Right from the beginning, as soon as the Holy Spirit was given on Pentecost, water and Spirit went hand in hand: "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:38). In Acts 10:44, the first Gentiles to whom Peter preached received the Holy Spirit even before their water baptism. This is always possible, for God is free to operate outside the sacraments as well as within them. In this case it was fitting for the Spirit to be given before baptism, in order to show God’s acceptance of believing Gentiles. Even under these circumstances, however, the connection to water baptism is still evident from Peter’s response: "Can anyone withhold the water for baptizing these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?" (Acts 10:47). Still later in Acts, when Paul found people who did not have the Spirit, he immediately questioned whether they had received Christian water baptism. Upon learning that they had not, he baptized them and laid hands on them, and they received the Spirit (Acts 19:1–6). These passages illustrate the connection between water and Spirit first made by Jesus himself: "Unless a man is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God" (John 3:5)."

Catholic Answers "In every instance of the Holy Spirit being given in the New Testament, water baptism is associated with it. In all but one case, the Holy Spirit was given after water baptism (cf. Acts 2:38, 8:9–17). When Paul questioned the Ephesian disciples about their relationship with the Holy Spirit, he asked, "Into what then were you baptized?" When they answered, "Into John’s baptism," Paul knew they had not received Christian baptism. So he preached the gospel first and then baptized them with Christian baptism (in the name of Christ), laid his hands upon them, and they immediately received the Holy Spirit (Acts 19:1–6). He could not come until they had been baptized "into Christ." The only time the Holy Spirit was given before baptism is recorded in Acts 10:44–48, where the Gentiles were added to the Christian Church. In chapter eleven we soon discover why: Had not the Holy Spirit fallen upon the Gentiles, the Jews would have never allowed them entrance into the Church (11:1–3, 15–18). Jesus’ baptism (recorded in Matthew 4:19, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21, and John 1:32) gives testimony to the truth that the Holy Spirit is associated with water baptism. In every account, the Holy Spirit is recorded descending upon him as he emerged from the waters of baptism. In Paul’s letter to Titus he reminds him that "he saved us . . . by the washing of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit, which he poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior" (Titus 3:5). In other words, through the graciousness of God and Christ, the Holy Spirit was generously given—poured out—to believers through the waters of baptism. This corresponds to what Jesus told Nicodemus: "Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God." The earliest Church Fathers who were either disciples of the Apostles or writers of the second century preached without exception that the water in John 3:3, 5 is the water of regeneration."

1088 "By his power he is present in the sacraments so that when anybody baptizes, it is really Christ himself who baptizes. "'

Catholic Answers "For a sacrament to be valid, three things have to be present: the correct form, the correct matter, and the correct intention. With baptism, the correct intention is to do what the Church does, the correct matter with which to do it is water, and the correct form is baptizing "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matt. 28:19). ... "Jesus-Only" Pentecostals also argue that the New Testament talks about people being baptized "in the name of Jesus," but there are only four such passages (Acts 2:38, 8:16, 10:48, and 19:5). Further, these passages do not use the same designation in each place (some say "Lord Jesus," other say "Jesus Christ"), indicating that they were not technical formulas used in the baptism but merely descriptions by Luke. These four descriptions are not to be considered as a substitute for or contradiction of the divine command of the Lord Jesus Christ to "make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matt. 28:19)."

Catholic Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith " The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has given a negative response to a "Dubium" regarding the validity of Baptism conferred in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, more commonly known as the Mormons. ... Even non-Catholics can validly administer Baptism. In every case, however, it is the Baptism of the Catholic Church, which does not belong to those who separate themselves from her but to the Church from which they have separated themselves (cf. Augustine, On Baptism 1, 12,9). This validity is possible because Christ is the true minister of the sacrament: Christ is the one who truly baptizes, whether it is Peter or Paul or Judas who baptizes (cf. Augustine, Treatise on the Gospel of John VI, 1,7; cf. CCC n. 1127). The Council of Trent, confirming this tradition, defined that Baptism administered by heretics in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, with the intention of doing what the Catholic Church does is true Baptism (cf. DH 1617). ... According to the Code, in cases of necessity anyone can baptize, provided the intention is correct (cf. can. 861 §2). ... In the 20th century, the Catholic Church became more aware of the Trinitarian errors which the teaching proposed by Smith contained, though he used the traditional terms, and therefore more and more doubts spread about the validity of the Baptism conferred by the Mormons, in spite of the fact that the form, as far as the substance of the terminology goes, coincided with that used by the Church. ... What are the reasons which now led to this negative position regarding the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which seems different from the position of the Catholic Church throughout the centuries? ...  Huge divergence on Trinity and baptism invalidates the intention of the Mormon minister of baptism and of the one to be baptized ... According to the traditional doctrine of the Catholic Church there are four requirements for the valid administration of the sacrament of Baptism: the matter, the form, the intention of the minister, and the right disposition of the recipient. I. The Matter. On this point there is no problem. Water is used. The Mormons practice Baptism by immersion (cf. Doctrine and Covenants [D&C] 20:74), which is one of the ways of celebrating Baptism (application of the matter) which is accepted by the Catholic Church. II. The Form. ...  The similarities with the formula used by the Catholic Church are at first sight obvious, but in reality they are only apparent. There is not in fact a fundamental doctrinal agreement. There is not a true invocation of the Trinity because the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, according to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, are not the three persons in which subsists the one Godhead, but three gods who form one divinity. ... As is easily seen, to the similarity of titles there does not correspond in any way a doctrinal content which can lead to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. The words Father, Son and Holy Spirit, have for the Mormons a meaning totally different from the Christian meaning. The differences are so great that one cannot even consider that this doctrine is a heresy which emerged out of a false understanding of the Christian doctrine. The teaching of the Mormons has a completely different matrix. ... III. The Intention of the Celebrating Minister. Such doctrinal diversity, regarding the very notion of God, prevents the minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from having the intention of doing what the Catholic Church does when she confers Baptism, that is, doing what Christ willed her to do when he instituted and mandated the sacrament of Baptism. This becomes even more evident when we consider that in their understanding Baptism was not instituted by Christ but by God and began with Adam (cf. Book of Moses 6:64). Christ simply commanded the practice of this rite; but this was not an innovation. It is clear that the intention of the Church in conferring Baptism is certainly to follow the mandate of Christ (cf. Mt 28,19) but at the same time to confer the sacrament that Christ had instituted. According to the New Testament, there is an essential difference between the Baptism of John and Christian Baptism. The Baptism of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which originated not in Christ but already at the beginning of creation (James E. Talmage, Articles of Faith [AF], Salt Lake City: Desert Book, 1990, cf. pp. 110-111), is not Christian Baptism; indeed, it denies its newness.. The Mormon minister, who must necessarily be the "priest" (cf. D&C 20:38-58.107:13.14.20), therefore radically formed in their own doctrine, cannot have any other intention than that of doing what the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does, which is quite different in respect to what the Catholic Church intends to do when it baptizes, that is, the conferral of the sacrament of Baptism instituted by Christ, which means participation in his death and resurrection (cf. Rom 6,3-11; Col 2,12-13). We can note two other differences, not as fundamental as the preceding one, but which also have their importance: A) According to the Catholic Church, Baptism cancels not only personal sins but also original sin, and therefore even infants are baptized for the remission of sins (cf. the essential texts of the Council of Trent, DH 1513-1515). This remission of original sin is not accepted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which denies the existence of this sin and therefore baptizes only persons who have the use of reason and are at least eight years old, excluding the mentally handicapped (cf. AF, pp. 113-116). In fact, the practice of the Catholic Church in conferring Baptism on infants is one of the main reasons for which the Mormons say that the Catholic Church apostatized in the first centuries, so that the sacraments celebrated by it are all invalid. ... Difference of views: Mormons hold that there is no real Trinity, no original sin, that Christ did not institute baptism Summing up, we can say: The Baptism of the Catholic Church and that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints differ essentially, both for what concerns faith in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in whose name Baptism is conferred, and for what concerns the relationship to Christ who instituted it. As a result of all this, it is understood that the Catholic Church has to consider invalid, that is to say, cannot consider true Baptism, the rite given that name by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints." 

Footnotes in the NAB on Luke 3 "[16] He will baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire: in contrast to John's baptism with water, Jesus is said to baptize with the holy Spirit and with fire. "

1284 In case of necessity, any person can baptize provided that he have the intention of doing that which the Church does and provided that he pours water on the candidate's head while saying: "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

1312 The risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying: [Jn 20:21-23] they became sacramental signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors 

699 By the Apostles' imposition of hands that the Holy Spirit is given [Acts 8:17-19; 13:3; 19:6] 

1288 In the Letter to the Hebrews the doctrine concerning Baptism and the laying on of hands is listed among the first elements of Christian instruction. The imposition of hands is rightly recognized by the Catholic tradition as the origin of the sacrament of Confirmation, which in a certain way perpetuates the grace of Pentecost in the Church" [Acts 8:15-17; 19:5-6; Heb 6:2]

1319 A candidate for Confirmation who has attained the age of reason must profess the faith, be in the state of grace, have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to assume the role of disciple and witness to Christ, both within the ecclesial community and in temporal affairs  

1290 In the first centuries Confirmation generally comprised one single celebration with Baptism, forming with it a "double sacrament," according to the expression of St. Cyprian 

1212 The faithful are born anew by Baptism, strengthened by the sacrament of Confirmation, and receive in the Eucharist the food of eternal life. By means of these sacraments of Christian initiation, they thus receive in increasing measure the treasures of the divine life and advance toward the perfection of charity 

1302 It is evident from its celebration that the effect of the sacrament of Confirmation is the full outpouring of the Holy Spirit as once granted to the apostles on the day of Pentecost  

1289 Confirmation suggests both the ratification of Baptism, thus completing Christian initiation, and the strengthening of baptismal grace - both fruits of the Holy Spiri

Augustine "3. It may perhaps surprise you why it is said, that Jesus baptized more than John ; and after this was said, it is subjoined, although Jesus baptized not, but His disciples. What then? Was the statement made false , and then corrected by this addition? Or, are both true, viz. that Jesus both did and also did not baptize? He did in fact baptize, because it was He that cleansed; and He did not baptize, because it was not He that touched. The disciples supplied the ministry of the body; He afforded the aid of His majesty. Now, when could He cease from baptizing, so long as He ceased not from cleansing? Of Him it is said by the same John , in the person of the Baptist, who says, This is He that baptizes . Jesus , therefore, is still baptizing; and so long as we continue to be baptized, Jesus baptizes . Let a man come without fear to the minister below; for he has a Master above.  4. But it may be one says, Christ does indeed baptize, but in spirit , not in body. As if, indeed, it were by the gift of another than He that any is imbued even with the sacrament of corporal and visible baptism. Would you know that it is He that baptizes , not only with the Spirit, but also with water? Hear the apostle : Even as Christ , says he, loved the Church, and gave Himself for it, purifying it with the washing of water by the Word , that He might present to Himself a glorious Church , not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing. Ephesians 5:25-27 Purifying it. How? With the washing of water by the Word . What is the baptism of Christ ? The washing of water by the Word . Take away the water, it is no baptism; take away the Word , it is no baptism."

1127 Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify. They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. The Father always hears the prayer of his Son's Church which, in the epiclesis of each sacrament, expresses her faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire transforms into itself everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit transforms into the divine life whatever is subjected to his power.

1256 The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and priest and, in the Latin Church, also the deacon. In case of necessity, anyone, even a non-baptized person, with the required intention, can baptize, by using the Trinitarian baptismal formula. The intention required is to will to do what the Church does when she baptizes. The Church finds the reason for this possibility in the universal saving will of God and the necessity of Baptism for salvation.

1239 The essential rite of the sacrament follows: Baptism properly speaking. It signifies and actually brings about death to sin and entry into the life of the Most Holy Trinity through configuration to the Paschal mystery of Christ. Baptism is performed in the most expressive way by triple immersion in the baptismal water. However, from ancient times it has also been able to be conferred by pouring the water three times over the candidate's head.

1214 This sacrament is called Baptism, after the central rite by which it is carried out: to baptize (Greek baptizein) means to "plunge" or "immerse"; the "plunge" into the water symbolizes the catechumen's burial into Christ's death, from which he rises up by resurrection with him, as "a new creature."

696 Water signifies birth and the fruitfulness of life given in the Holy Spirit, fire symbolizes the transforming energy of the Holy Spirit's actions. John the Baptist, who goes "before [the Lord] in the spirit and power of Elijah," proclaims Christ as the one who "will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire" [Lk 1:17; 3:16]. Jesus will say of the Spirit: "I came to cast fire upon the earth; and would that it were already kindled!" [Lk 12:49]. In the form of tongues "as of fire," the Holy Spirit rests on the disciples on the morning of Pentecost and fills them with himself [Acts 2:3-4] The spiritual tradition has retained this symbolism of fire as one of the most expressive images of the Holy Spirit's actions. "Do not quench the Spirit" [1 Thess 5:19]

818 "However, one cannot charge with the sin of the separation those who at present are born into these communities [that resulted from such separation] and in them are brought up in the faith of Christ, and the Catholic Church accepts them with respect and affection as brothers. . . . All who have been justified by faith in Baptism are incorporated into Christ; they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers in the Lord by the children of the Catholic Church."

838 "The Church knows that she is joined in many ways to the baptized who are honored by the name of Christian, but do not profess the Catholic faith in its entirety or have not preserved unity or communion under the successor of Peter." Those "who believe in Christ and have been properly baptized are put in a certain, although imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church." With the Orthodox Churches, this communion is so profound "that it lacks little to attain the fullness that would permit a common celebration of the Lord's Eucharist."

1271 Baptism constitutes the foundation of communion among all Christians, including those who are not yet in full communion with the Catholic Church: "For men who believe in Christ and have been properly baptized are put in some, though imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church. Justified by faith in Baptism, [they] are incorporated into Christ; they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church." "Baptism therefore constitutes the sacramental bond of unity existing among all who through it are reborn."

819 Many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside the visible confines of the Catholic Church: "the written Word of God; the life of grace; faith, hope, and charity, with the other interior gifts of the Holy Spirit, as well as visible elements." Christ's Spirit uses these Churches and ecclesial communities as means of salvation, whose power derives from the fullness of grace and truth that Christ has entrusted to the Catholic Church. All these blessings come from Christ and lead to him, and are in themselves calls to "Catholic unity"   

1544 Everything that the priesthood of the Old Covenant prefigured finds its fulfillment in Christ Jesus, the "one mediator between God and men." The Christian tradition considers Melchizedek, "priest of God Most High," as a prefiguration of the priesthood of Christ, the unique "high priest after the order of Melchizedek"; "holy, blameless, unstained," "by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified," that is, by the unique sacrifice of the cross.

1546 Christ, high priest and unique mediator, has made of the Church "a kingdom, priests for his God and Father." The whole community of believers is, as such, priestly. The faithful exercise their baptismal priesthood through their participation, each according to his own vocation, in Christ's mission as priest, prophet, and king. Through the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation the faithful are "consecrated to be . . . a holy priesthood."

1268 The baptized have become "living stones" to be "built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood." By Baptism they share in the priesthood of Christ, in his prophetic and royal mission. They are "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that [they] may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called [them] out of darkness into his marvelous light." Baptism gives a share in the common priesthood of all believers.

1591 The whole Church is a priestly people. Through Baptism all the faithful share in the priesthood of Christ. This participation is called the "common priesthood of the faithful." Based on this common priesthood and ordered to its service, there exists another participation in the mission of Christ: the ministry conferred by the sacrament of Holy Orders, where the task is to serve in the name and in the person of Christ the Head in the midst of the community.

784 On entering the People of God through faith and Baptism, one receives a share in this people's unique, priestly vocation: "Christ the Lord, high priest taken from among men, has made this new people 'a kingdom of priests to God, his Father.' The baptized, by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood."

1141 The celebrating assembly is the community of the baptized who, "by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that through all the works of Christian men they may offer spiritual sacrifices." This "common priesthood" is that of Christ the sole priest, in which all his members participate: Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that full, conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy, and to which the Christian people, "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people," have a right and an obligation by reason of their Baptism.

901 "Hence the laity, dedicated as they are to Christ and anointed by the Holy Spirit, are marvelously called and prepared so that even richer fruits of the Spirit maybe produced in them. For all their works, prayers, and apostolic undertakings, family and married life, daily work, relaxation of mind and body, if they are accomplished in the Spirit - indeed even the hardships of life if patiently born - all these become spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. In the celebration of the Eucharist these may most fittingly be offered to the Father along with the body of the Lord. And so, worshipping everywhere by their holy actions, the laity consecrate the world itself to God, everywhere offering worship by the holiness of their lives."

Catholic Answers "For a sacrament to be valid, three things have to be present: the correct form, the correct matter, and the correct intention. With baptism, the correct intention is to do what the Church does, the correct matter with which to do it is water, and the correct form is baptizing "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matt. 28:19). ... "Jesus-Only" Pentecostals also argue that the New Testament talks about people being baptized "in the name of Jesus," but there are only four such passages (Acts 2:38, 8:16, 10:48, and 19:5). Further, these passages do not use the same designation in each place (some say "Lord Jesus," other say "Jesus Christ"), indicating that they were not technical formulas used in the baptism but merely descriptions by Luke. These four descriptions are not to be considered as a substitute for or contradiction of the divine command of the Lord Jesus Christ to "make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matt. 28:19)."

Catholic Answers "... John the Baptist performed a "baptism of repentance" for Jews as a dramatic prophetic gesture indicating that they were as much in need of conversion as pagans. ... Given this history, it was natural for Jesus and his followers to use the same word for Christian baptism, though it was not identical either to the Jewish baptism or to that of John. ... One important aspect of Christian baptism in the New Testament is the clear relationship between being baptized with water and being "baptized with the Holy Spirit", or "born again. ... the New Testament clearly associates water baptism with Spirit baptism and rebirth (even if they do not interpret this relationship as cause and effect). Right from the beginning, as soon as the Holy Spirit was given on Pentecost, water and Spirit went hand in hand: "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:38). In Acts 10:44, the first Gentiles to whom Peter preached received the Holy Spirit even before their water baptism. This is always possible, for God is free to operate outside the sacraments as well as within them. In this case it was fitting for the Spirit to be given before baptism, in order to show God’s acceptance of believing Gentiles. Even under these circumstances, however, the connection to water baptism is still evident from Peter’s response: "Can anyone withhold the water for baptizing these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?" (Acts 10:47). Still later in Acts, when Paul found people who did not have the Spirit, he immediately questioned whether they had received Christian water baptism. Upon learning that they had not, he baptized them and laid hands on them, and they received the Spirit (Acts 19:1–6). These passages illustrate the connection between water and Spirit first made by Jesus himself: "Unless a man is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God" (John 3:5)."

Catholic Answers "In every instance of the Holy Spirit being given in the New Testament, water baptism is associated with it. In all but one case, the Holy Spirit was given after water baptism (cf. Acts 2:38, 8:9–17). When Paul questioned the Ephesian disciples about their relationship with the Holy Spirit, he asked, "Into what then were you baptized?" When they answered, "Into John’s baptism," Paul knew they had not received Christian baptism. So he preached the gospel first and then baptized them with Christian baptism (in the name of Christ), laid his hands upon them, and they immediately received the Holy Spirit (Acts 19:1–6). He could not come until they had been baptized "into Christ." The only time the Holy Spirit was given before baptism is recorded in Acts 10:44–48, where the Gentiles were added to the Christian Church. In chapter eleven we soon discover why: Had not the Holy Spirit fallen upon the Gentiles, the Jews would have never allowed them entrance into the Church (11:1–3, 15–18). Jesus’ baptism (recorded in Matthew 4:19, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21, and John 1:32) gives testimony to the truth that the Holy Spirit is associated with water baptism. In every account, the Holy Spirit is recorded descending upon him as he emerged from the waters of baptism. In Paul’s letter to Titus he reminds him that "he saved us . . . by the washing of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit, which he poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior" (Titus 3:5). In other words, through the graciousness of God and Christ, the Holy Spirit was generously given—poured out—to believers through the waters of baptism. This corresponds to what Jesus told Nicodemus: "Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God." The earliest Church Fathers who were either disciples of the Apostles or writers of the second century preached without exception that the water in John 3:3, 5 is the water of regeneration."


Early Church Writings

 

Ordain elders in every city  . 

 

Clement "Through countryside and city [the apostles] preached, and they appointed their earliest converts, testing them by the Spirit, to be the bishops and deacons of future believers. Nor was this a novelty, for bishops and deacons had been written about a long time earlier. . . . Our apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife for the office of bishop. For this reason, therefore, having received perfect foreknowledge, they appointed those who have already been mentioned and afterwards added the further provision that, if they should die, other approved men should succeed to their ministry" (Letter to the Corinthians 42:4–5, 44:1–3 [A.D. 80]).

Irenaeus " The blessed apostles [Peter and Paul], having founded and built up the church [of Rome] . . . handed over the office of the episcopate to Linus(Against Heresies 3:3:3 [A.D. 189]).

Ignatius of Antioch "Ignatius . . . to the church also which holds the presidency, in the location of the country of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honor, worthy of blessing, worthy of praise, worthy of success, worthy of sanctification, and, because you hold the presidency in love, named after Christ and named after the Father" (Letter to the Romans 1:1 [A.D. 110]).

Ignatius of Antioch "Since therefore I have, in the persons before mentioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine harmony, while your bishop presides in the place of God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the beginning of time, and in the end was revealed. Do ye all then, imitating the same divine conduct, pay respect to one another, and let no one look upon his neighbour after the flesh, but do ye continually love each other in Jesus Christ. Let nothing exist among you that may divide you ; but be ye united with your bishop, and those that preside over you, as a type and evidence of your immortality." (Magnesians,6(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:61)

Ignatius of Antioch "For what is the bishop but one who beyond all others possesses all power and authority, so far as it is possible for a man to possess it, who according to his ability has been made an imitator of the Christ Of God? And what is the presbytery but a sacred assembly, the counsellors and assessors of the bishop? And what are the deacons but imitators of the angelic powers, fulfilling a pure and blameless ministry unto him, as ... Anencletus and Clement to Peter?" (To the Trallians,7(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:69) 

Ignatius of Antioch "See that ye all follow the bishop, even as Christ Jesus does the Father, and the presbytery as ye would the apostles. Do ye also reverence the deacons, as those that carry out[through their office] the appointment of God. Let no man do anything connected with the Church without the bishop. Let that be deemed a proper Eucharist, which is[administered] either by the bishop, or by one to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude[of the people] also be; by the bishop, or by one to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude[of the people] also be; even as, wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church." ( Epistle to the Smyrneans, 8:2(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:89)

Irenaeus " The blessed apostles [Peter and Paul], having founded and built up the church [of Rome] . . . handed over the office of the episcopate to Linus"  (Against Heresies 3:3:3 [A.D. 189]).

Clement "Through countryside and city [the apostles] preached, and they appointed their earliest converts, testing them by the Spirit, to be the bishops and deacons of future believers. Nor was this a novelty, for bishops and deacons had been written about a long time earlier. . . . Our apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife for the office of bishop. For this reason, therefore, having received perfect foreknowledge, they appointed those who have already been mentioned and afterwards added the further provision that, if they should die, other approved men should succeed to their ministry" (Letter to the Corinthians 42:4–5, 44:1–3 [A.D. 80]).

Clement "Owing to the sudden and repeated calamities and misfortunes which have befallen us, we must acknowledge that we have been somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the matters in dispute among you, beloved; and especially that abominable and unholy sedition, alien and foreign to the elect of God, which a few rash and self-willed persons have inflamed to such madness that your venerable and illustrious name, worthy to be loved by all men, has been greatly defamed. . . . Accept our counsel and you will have nothing to regret. . . . If anyone disobey the things which have been said by him [God] through us [i.e., that you must reinstate your leaders], let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and in no small danger. . . . You will afford us joy and gladness if being obedient to the things which we have written through the Holy Spirit, you will root out the wicked passion of jealousy" (Letter to the Corinthians 1, 58–59, 63 [A.D. 80]).

Ignatius of Antioch "Ignatius . . . to the church also which holds the presidency, in the location of the country of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honor, worthy of blessing, worthy of praise, worthy of success, worthy of sanctification, and, because you hold the presidency in love, named after Christ and named after the Father" (Letter to the Romans 1:1 [A.D. 110]).

The Martyrdom of Polycarp "Polycarp was . . . bishop of the Catholic Church at Smyrna, and a teacher in our own day who combined both apostle and prophet in his own person. For indeed, every word that ever fell from his lips either has had or will have its fulfillment" (Martyrdom of Polycarp 5, 16 [A.D. 155]).

Martyrdom of Polycarp [A]ll the people wondered that there should be such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect, of whom this most admirable Polycarp was one, having in our own times been an apostolic and prophetic teacher, and bishop of the Catholic Church which is in Smyrna. For every word that went out of his mouth either has been or shall yet be accomplished. (Martyrdom of Polycarp 16:2(A.D. 155),in ANF,I:42)

Must be a witness of his resurrection .

Ignatius of Antioch "For what is the bishop but one who beyond all others possesses all power and authority, so far as it is possible for a man to possess it, who according to his ability has been made an imitator of the Christ Of God? And what is the presbytery but a sacred assembly, the counsellors and assessors of the bishop? And what are the deacons but imitators of the angelic powers, fulfilling a pure and blameless ministry unto him, as ... Anencletus and Clement to Peter?" (To the Trallians,7(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:69) 

Ignatius of Antioch "See that ye all follow the bishop, even as Christ Jesus does the Father, and the presbytery as ye would the apostles. Do ye also reverence the deacons, as those that carry out[through their office] the appointment of God. Let no man do anything connected with the Church without the bishop. Let that be deemed a proper Eucharist, which is[administered] either by the bishop, or by one to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude[of the people] also be; by the bishop, or by one to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude[of the people] also be; even as, wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church." ( Epistle to the Smyrneans, 8:2(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:89)

Ignatius of Antioch "Since therefore I have, in the persons before mentioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine harmony, while your bishop presides in the place of God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the beginning of time, and in the end was revealed. Do ye all then, imitating the same divine conduct, pay respect to one another, and let no one look upon his neighbour after the flesh, but do ye continually love each other in Jesus Christ. Let nothing exist among you that may divide you ; but be ye united with your bishop, and those that preside over you, as a type and evidence of your immortality." (Magnesians,6(A.D. 110),in ANF,I:61)